domingo, 15 de julho de 2012

dubai



Dubai  (in  Arabic :  دبي ,  Dubayy ) is one of seven  emirates  and the  city  's most populous of the  United Arab Emirates  (UAE) with approximately 2,262,000 inhabitants. It is located along the south coast of the  Persian Gulf  on  the Arabian Peninsula  in  Asia . The Municipality is sometimes called "Dubai City" to distinguish it from the emirate of the same name. Dubai is known worldwide for being extremely modern, "futuristic "and with huge  skyscrapers  and wide avenues.
There are records of the existence of the city at least 150  years  before the formation of the UAE. Dubai shares duties  legal ,  political ,  military  and  economic  with the other emirates, although each emirate has jurisdiction over some functions such as the application of  civil law  and provision and upkeep of local facilities. Dubai has the largest population and is the second largest emirate by area, after  Abu Dhabi . Dubai and Abu Dhabi are the only two emirates to possess the power of  veto  on issues of national importance in the country's legislature. Dubai has been ruled by the  dynasty  Al Maktoum  since  1833 . The current ruler of Dubai,  Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum , is also the  Prime Minister  and Vice President of the  UAE .
The emirate's revenue comes from  tourism ,  trade ,  real estate  and services financeiros.As  revenues  from  oil  and  natural gas  contribute less than 6% ( 2006 ) of GDP  of  U.S. $  37 billion economy of Dubai ( 2005 ). The  real estate and  construction , on the other hand, contributed 22.6% of the economy in  2005 , before the current  boom of large-scale construction. Dubai has attracted attention through its real estate projects and sports events. This increased attention, coinciding with its emergence as a world business hub, has highlighted issues of  human rights  relating to its  manpower  largely external.

etymology
In  1820 , Dubai was known as  Al Wasl  by historians  British . However, few records pertaining to the cultural history of the  UAE  or its components are due to the oral tradition of the region to spend their traditions through  folklore  and myths. The linguistic origins of the word  Dubai  are also in dispute, some believe that the word may come from  Persian , while some believe that  Arabic  is the linguistic root of the word.According Fedel Handhal, researcher of the history and culture of the UAE, the word Dubai  may have come from the word  Daba  (a derivative of  Yadub ), which means crawling, the word may be a reference to the flow of the creek to Dubai the inside.
geography
Dubai is situated on the shore of  the Persian Gulf , the  UAE  and this practically at  sea level  (above 16 meters). The emirate of Dubai shares borders with  Abu Dhabi in the south ,  Sharjah in the  northeast  and the  Sultanate of Oman  in the  southeast .  Hatta , an  enclave  of the smallest emirate, is surrounded on three sides by Oman and the Emirate of Ajman  (in the west ) and  Ras Al Khaimah  (in the north). The Persian Gulf borders the western coast of the emirate. Dubai is positioned at  25 ° 26 'N 55 ° 30' E and covers an area of 4114  square kilometers .
Dubai is located within the  Arabian Desert . However, the  topography  of Dubai is significantly different from the topography found in the southern portion of the UAE, since much of the landscape of Dubai is distinguished by patterns of  the desert  of  sand  andgravel , while the deserts dominate much of the region south of the country. [27]  The sand is composed mainly of  shells  and coral  crushed. East of the city, the salt-crusted coastal plains, known as  sabkha , give rise to ums line of  dunes . Farther east, the dunes are larger and red, thanks to the  iron oxide . [21]  The sand of the desert gives way to the Western Hajar Mountains, which run alongside Dubai's border with  Oman  at  Hatta. The Western Hajar chain has an arid landscape, irregular and broken, whose mountains reach about 1,300 feet in some places.

Satellite image  showing part of Dubai on  February 5th  of  2009 .
Dubai has no  river  or  oasis  natural, however, has an  estuary  natural, Dubai Creek, which was  dredged  to make it deep enough for large ships can cross it. A vast sea of sand dunes covers much of southern Dubai and eventually leads to the  desert known as  Rub 'al-Khali .Seismically, Dubai is located in a very stable - the nearest seismic fault, the  fault Zargos , is 120 km from the UAE and is unlikely to have any seismic impact on Dubai. [35] Experts also predict that the possibility of a  tsunami in the region is also minimal, because the waters of the  Persian Gulf  are not deep enough to trigger a  tsunami .
The sandy desert surrounding the city supports  wild grasses  and occasional date palm trees . In the desert,  hyacinths  grow in the plains  sabkha , to the east of the city, while  acacia  trees and  ghaf  grow on the plains near the Western Al Hajar Mountains.Several indigenous trees such as  palm  and  neem as well as imported trees like the eucalyptus trees  growing in  parks  in Dubai.  Bustard ,  hyena striped,  caracal , the desert fox ,  falcon  and  Arabian Oryx-the-  species are common in the desert Dubai.Dubai is in the path of  migrating  birds between  Europe ,  Asia  and  Africa , and more than 320 species of migratory birds pass through the emirate in  spring  and  autumn .The waters of Dubai are home to over 300 species of  fish including  grouper .

Satellite image  of metropolitan Dubai-Sharjah - Ajman  night.
The  Dubai Creek  is located in the northeast to the southwest of the city. The eastern section of town where the town of  Deira , is flanked by the Emirate of  Sharjah  in the east and the city of  Al Aweer  in the south. The Dubai International Airport  is located south of the city, while the  Palm Deira  is located north of Dubai in the  Persian Gulf . Much of the boom  Dubai real estate is concentrated in the west of  Dubai Creek , near coastal  Jumeirah.  Port Rashid ,  Jebel Ali ,  Burj Al Arab , the Palm Jumeirah  and the frank zone, such as Business Bay  are all located in this city ​​region. Five main areas - E 11 ( Sheikh Zayed Road ), E 311 ( Emirates Road ), E 44 (Dubai-Hatta Highway ), E 77 ( Dubai-Al Habab Road ) and E 66 ( Oud Metha Road ) - run through Dubai , linking the city to other towns and emirates. In addition, several important trade routes of the city, such as  D 89  (Al Maktoum Road / Airport Road),  D 85 (Baniyas Road),  D 75  (Sheikh Rashid Road),  D 73  (Al Dhiyafa Road),  D 94  (Jumeirah Road) and  D 92  (Al Khaleej / Al Wasl Road) connect the various localities of the city.The east and west sections of the city are connected by  bridges  Al Maktoum ,  Al Garhoud ,  Business Bay Crossing Bridge , the  Floating Bridge in Dubai  and the  tunnel Al Shindagha .

economy 

The  Burj Khalifa , the largest structure  made ​​by man  in the world.
The  Gross Domestic Product  (GDP) of Dubai in 2005 was  U.S. $  37 billion. [5]  Although Dubai's economy has been built by the oil industry, [51]  revenues from oil  and  natural gas currently account for less than 6% revenues of the  emirate . [4]  It is estimated that Dubai produces 240,000 barrels of oil a day and substantial quantities of gas fields. The emirate has 2% of gas reserves in the UAE. Oil reserves in Dubai declined significantly and is estimated to be exhausted in 20 years. [52]  Sectors  Real Estate  and  Construction (22.6%), [6] Trade  (16%), warehousing (15%) and of financial services  (11%) are the largest contributors to Dubai's economy. [53]
A survey of  City Mayors  ranked Dubai as the 44th best city's financial world, [54] while another report by  City Mayors  indicated that Dubai is the 33rd richest city in the world in terms of  parity of purchasing power standards (PPS). [ 55]
Among the main destinations for  re-exports  from Dubai to include  Iran  (U.S. $ 790 million),  India (U.S. $ 204 million) and  Saudi Arabia (194 million U.S. dollars). The main sources of  imports of the emirate are  Japan  ($ 1.5 billion),  China  ($ 1.4 billion) and  U.S.  (U.S. $ 1.4 billion). [3]
Historically, Dubai and its twin,  Deira  (independent of Dubai City at that time), became important ports of call for Western manufacturers. Most new banks and  financial centers of the city are located in the port area. Dubai maintained its importance as a trade route in the  years 1970  and  1980 . Dubai has  free trade  in  gold  and until  the 1990s , was an important center for "active smuggling trade" [56]  of  ingots  of gold to  India , where gold import was restricted.

The  Dubai Marina , a residential neighborhood, the second largest marina  artificial planet.
The  Jebel Ali Port  of Dubai, built in  the 1970s, is the largest artificial harbor in the world and was ranked eighth worldwide in traffic volume containers . [57]  Dubai is also developing as a center for industries  services such as IT  and finance , with the creation of  free zones throughout the city specific. The  Dubai Internet City , combined with  Dubai Media Cityas part of TECOM ( Dubai Technology, Electronic Commerce and Media Free Zone Authority ) is an enclave, like TI, whose members include companies such as  EMC Corporation ,  Oracle Corporation ,  Microsoftand  IBM and media organizations such as  MBC ,  CNN ,  BBC ,  Reuters ,  Sky News and  AP .
The  Stock Exchange of Dubai  ( Dubai Financial Market  - DFM) was established in March  2000 as a secondary market for trading of securities and bonds, both local and foreign. In the fourth quarter of 2006, its turnover stood at about 400 billion shares, worth U.S. $  95 billion in total. The DFM had a market capitalization of about $ 87 billion. [40]

Skyline  seen from Dubai Zabeel Park.
The government's decision to exit a trading economy, but dependent on oil to one based on  service  -oriented and  tourism  has made  ​​real estate more valuable, resulting in property appreciation over the period 2004-2006. The long-term evaluation of the property market in Dubai, however, showed depreciation, some properties have lost 64% of its value from 2001 to November 2008. [58]  The large-scale real estate development projects have led to the construction of some of the most highskyscrapers  and innovative projects in the world, such as the  Burj Khalifa , the  Emirates Towers , the Palm Islands  and the most expensive and second tallest hotel, the  Burj Al Arab . [59]
The Dubai property market has experienced a major recession between  the 2008th / 2009, as a result of the climate of economic downturn. [60]  The Board of Sheikh Mohammed al Abbar told the international press in December 2008, Emaar had credits of  U.S. $  70 billion of Dubai and the State had $ 10 billion more, keeping about $ 350 billion in real estate assets. By early 2009, the situation worsened with the global economic crisistaking a heavy toll on real estate, construction and  employment . [61]
In February 2009 the  external debt  of Dubai was estimated at approximately $ 100 billion, leaving every 250,000 citizens in the emirate of the UAE accounts for $ 400,000 dollars in debt.

transport

The  Dubai Metro  on the day of his inauguration.
The transport is controlled by the Dubai Roads and Transport Authority. The public transport network faces enormous congestion and reliability problems that a large investment program is trying to solve, including over a thousand AED70 billion in improvements scheduled for completion until  2020 , when the city's population is projected to exceed 3.5 million. [63]
The  Dubai International Airport  ( IATA : DXB), the  hub  of the airline  Emirates Airlines , the services  of the city of Dubai and other emirates of the country. The Dubai International Airport served a total of more than 37 million passengers and handled more than 1.8 million tons of cargo in  2008 . [64]  In 2008, the Dubai International Airport was the  20th busiest airport in the world , with more than 35 million international passengers, and the 6th busiest international airport in the world in terms of international passenger traffic. Besides being an important center of passenger traffic, the  airport  is one of the busiest cargo of the world, handling 1.824 million tonnes of cargo in 2008, became the airport's 11th busiest in the world, an increase of 9, 4% over 2007. The  Emirates Airlines  is the national airline of Dubai, and operates internationally to 101 destinations in 61  countries  on six  continents .

Terminal 3 at  Dubai International Airport. The terminal is for exclusive use ofEmirates Airlines .
The development of the  Al Maktoum International Airport , currently under construction in Jebel Ali , was announced in 2004 . The first phase is expected to be completed in  2010 , and once operational the new airport will host foreign airlines and other emirates with an exclusive terminal for them.
The Public Transport System is managed by the Dubai Roads and Transport Authority (EWA). The bus system has 140 routes and services carried about 109.5 million people in 2008. In late 2010, there will be 2,100 buses in service throughout the city. [66]  The Roads and Transport Authority announced the construction of 500 bus stops with  air conditioning  (A / C) and has plans for 1,000 more across the emirate into a drive to encourage use of public buses.
The proposed 3.89 billion  U.S. dollars  of  Dubai Metro  is under construction for the emirate. The metro system partially came into operation in September  2009  and should be fully operational in  2012 . The  metro  will comprise four lines: the Green Line from Al Rashidiya to the main center of the city and the Red Line from Jebel Ali airport It also has a blue and a purple line. The Dubai Metro (Green and Blue Lines) will have 70 km of track and 43 stations, 37 above ground and 10 underground. [67]  The  Dubai Metro  is the first urban rail network of  the  Arabian Peninsula . [68]  All trains and stations are  air conditioned  with doors at the end of the platform to make this possible.

Abras  are the traditional mode of transport between  Deira  and  Bur Dubai .
The  monorail  on  Palm Jumeirah  was opened in  2009 . It is the first monorail to be built in the region. Two electric cars are expected to be built in Dubai in 2011. The first is the Downtown Burj Dubai Tram System  and the second is the Al Sufouh Tram. The  Downtown Burj Dubai Tram System  will be 4.6 km and is designed to meet the area around the  Burj Dubai , the second will run 14.5 km along the Sheikh Zayed Road  in  Dubai Marina  to the Burj Al Arab  and the  Mall of the Emirates .
One of the more traditional methods of transportation between  Bur Dubai  and  Deira is through  abras , small  boats  that passengers use to cross the  Dubai Creek , between the stations open in Bastakiya and Baniyas Road .
There are two major commercial ports in Dubai,  Port Rashid  and  Jebel Ali Port . The port of Jebel Ali is the 7th busiest port in the world. Jebel Ali is the largest port in the world made ​​by man and the greater  Middle East .
The government has invested heavily in  infrastructure  road in Dubai, although this investment has not kept pace with the increasing number of vehicles. This, coupled with the phenomenon of induced traffic has led to increasing problems of congestion . [69]
Dubai also has an extensive system of  taxi , by far the means of  public transport  most used in the emirate. There are both public and private taxi. There are about 7,500 taxis operating in the emirate.


culture

ARCHITECTURE


Map highlighting key projects to be constructed or already completed in Dubai. Among them are the Palm Islands  (Palm Jebel Ali ,  Palm Jumeirah , Palm Deira),  The World ,  The Universe  and Dubai Waterfront .

View of the  Madinat Jumeirah  with the  Burj Al Arab  in the background, one of the main symbols of Dubai.
Dubai is famous for its works great and strong tourist appeal. Among them we can highlight the  Palm Islands , the  archipelago  The World, the hotel  Burj Al Arab  and the building  Burj Khalifa .

edit ]Palm Islands

Palm Islands  are three  islands  in the shape of artificial  palm trees . A daring project constructed by Al Nakheel Properties, is a major attractive point of the city and aims to increase tourism in Dubai. Although artificial, natural materials have been used only ( sand and  stone ) for the construction of the islands, instead of  concrete  and steel , better suited for the type of structure. A second artificial island shaped like a palm tree is under construction, at an advanced stage. It is planned to build a third artificial island shaped like palm tree. In each arm of the palm are being built elegant  hotels  and large homes.Residents may have the right to moor his boat in front of some buildings citation needed ] .

edit ]The World

The World  is an  archipelago  artificial, still under construction, so that the design of the world map . These islands are being sold with values ​​from 6.2 to 36.7 million dollars. Most islands have already been purchased by investors around the world. For example, a couple of actors  Angelina Jolie  and  Brad Pitt have already purchased the island representing  Ethiopia , and a hotel to stay with the set consisting of several islands that make up the design of Europe citation needed ] .

edit ]Burj Al Arab

The  Burj Al Arab  is one of the  hotels  more luxurious Dubai. It was built on an artificial island with 321 meters high, and the 2nd tallest structure used as a  hotel , after losing the title to the  Rose Tower , also built in Dubai. The  building  mimics the sail of a boat, and today is one of the main cards of city and country.

edit ]Burj Khalifa

The  Burj Khalifa  (in  Arabic :  برج خليفة ;  "Tower  Khalifa " ) - formerly known as  Burj Dubai  (in  Arabic :  برج دبي ;  Dubai Tower ) - is the  skyscraper  world's tallest. It was inaugurated on  January 4th  of  2010 . At a height of 828  m  , making it the tallest structure in the world, reaching its maximum height, the Burj Khalifa surpassed not only the tallest skyscraper in the world,  Taipei 101 , but the structure is not suspended by cables land highest in the world, the  CN Tower , and the world's tallest structure, the KVLY-TV Tower . [70]
It took over five years to build. It cost  U.S. $  1.5 billion, according to its builders, [71]  and can be seen at about 100 km away.
The Burj Khalifa was designed by  Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill , who also designed the Sears Tower  in  Chicago  and the  Freedom Tower  in  New York , among other famous buildings. The interior will be decorated by  Giorgio Armani . An Armani Hotel (the first of its kind) occupies the first 37 floors. The 45th to the 108th floor there are nearly 700 private apartments on 64 floors (which, according to the official, were sold in eight hours).The complete suite corporations and most other floors. It also has the fastest elevator, at 18 m / s (65 km / h, 40 mph). Currently, the fastest elevator in the world is the Taipei 101, Taipei , Taiwan , the 16.83 m / s (60.6 km / h, 37.5 mph).
The Burj Khalifa will include 30,000 homes, nine hotels, residential towers and twelve nineteen acres around it. The tower will cover an area of 334,000  square meters  of development. [72]






Flag Officer Dubai
Flag
Location of Dubai in the UAE
Location of Dubai in the  UAE
Country United Arab Emirates
EmirateDubai
Area
  Total4114 km ²
  Metropolitan1287.4 km ²
Population
  City ( 2008 )2262000
  Meter2262000
   -Density metropolitan  408.18 / km ²
[1]

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