London (in English : London ) is the capital and the largest and most important cityof England and the United Kingdom . For two millennia, was a great town and its history goes back to its founding by the Romans , when he was named Londinium .  Central London, the ancient City of London , also known as The Square Mile ("square mile") or the City , retains its mediaeval boundaries. At least since the nineteenth century , the name "London" refers to the city developed around this core.  Today, the bulk of this conurbation forms the region of Greater London ,  whose administrative area  has its own mayor and elected assembly . 
London is a city Global Alpha + + (alongside New York and Tokyo ), and one of the largest, most important and influential financial centers in the world.     Central London is home to thirst for more than half of the 100 best companies in the UK (the index FTSE 100 ) and over 100 of the 500 largest in Europe . London has a strong influence on politics , finance , education , entertainment , media , fashion , arts and culture in general, which contributes to their overall position. It is a major tourist destination for domestic and foreign visitors. London hosted the Summer Olympics of 1908 and 1948 and will host the Summer Olympics of 2012 .  London has four World Heritage Sites : the Tower of London , the site of the historic settlement of Greenwich , the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the site comprising the Palace of Westminster , Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church . 
London has a diverse range of peoples , cultures and religions and over 300 languages are spoken in its territory.  In July 2007 , the official population was 7,556,900 inhabitants within the limits of London,  making it the most populous municipality in the European Union .  His urban area (the second largest of the EU ) has a population of 8,278,251 inhabitants,  while the metropolitan region (the largest EU) has a total population (rural and urban) estimated at 12 million  and 14 million people. The London Underground , administered by Transport for London , is the most extensive underground railway network in the world,  the London Heathrow Airport is the busiest airport in the world in number of international passengers  and the air space of the city is the busiest of any city of the world. 
The city Londinium was founded by the Romans on the north bank of the River Thames, in 43 AD The ancient town has developed close to London Bridge built by the Romans which allowed cross the Thames.
This phase lasted about 25 years until the looting by icenos , Celtic tribe, led by Queen Boudicca . London was rebuilt, allowing a rapid development in the following years. It is believed that has become the capital of the Roman province British in the second century, replacing the old capital, Colchester . In the second century London was surrounded by a wall where now stands the City . In the third century the population of London was about 45,000 to 60,000 inhabitants . With the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire , the troops were called back to the mainland and the city's population declined.
[ edit ]Anglo-Saxon
After the fall of the Roman Empire , the Roman city was virtually abandoned and a city Anglo-Saxon by the name of Lundenwic was established about 1 km from the oldLondinium Roman, in the area now called Covent Garden . Lundenwic thrived until 851 , when the invasions of the Vikings destroyed the city.
In 880 , Alfred expelled the Vikings, the town of Lundenwic transfers into the ancient Roman walls, which is now called Ealdwic ("old city" or "old town", where now stands Aldwych), appointing one of his sons governor of the city and probably rebuild the ancient Roman bridge over the Thames . Thereafter, London became an important commercial center and begins to develop his unique self-government. After the death of the son of Alfred, London is reporting directly to the kings ugly. After 930 , the kings began to gather there sweating your advice and, in 1000 , the King Etelredo already use it as their primary capital. The former capital was Winchester , 100 km southwest of London. So London definitely stands as the capital of the kingdom, including periods in the domain of the Vikings ( 1016 to 1043 ), the return of England to the Saxon area (1043 to 1066 ) and Norman dynasty (1066 onwards). In 1016, the Danish king, Canute the Great , conquered England. The Saxon dynasty was restored in 1043 by Edward the Confessor , who ordered the construction of Westminster Abbey (not to be confused with Westminster Cathedral ).
[ edit ]Medieval Period
After the Battle of Hastings in 1066 , the Normans conquered England, putting an end to the Anglo-Saxon dynasty. William I is crowned English king in the newly finished Westminster Abbey . In this abbey were to be crowned kings of all England. The residence of the kings of England was, until the end of the Norman period, the castle fortress of the Tower of London , which later became a prison guard and now the crown jewels.
[ edit ]Age of Tudor (1485-1603)
This period saw three major events: the War of the Roses , religious reform and the English Elizabethan period . Until the reform, much of London was occupied by monasteries (monasteries) and other religious establishments. With the retirement of Henry VIII , monasteries passed into other hands and other functions.
Under the reign of Elizabeth I , London's population increased from 100,000 to 200,000 inhabitants. Theatres settled in the city and Shakespeare founded the Globe Theatre.With the decline of the port of Antwerp , London now has a major financial role.
[ edit ]Season of Stuart (1603-1714)
After the defeat of the invincible armada in Spanish in 1588 , a certain political stability in England allowed London to grow. In 1603 , King James I attempted to unify England and Scotland . But his anti-Catholic laws made him very unpopular and on November 6 of 1605 he suffered an assassination attempt on the famous gunpowder plot . James I did the first project of urbanization of the city and under the reign of Charles I came to Hyde Park , the park first opened to the public of London.
Between 1665 and 1666 , London suffered the great epidemic of bubonic plague that killed about 70,000 people (20% of the population). Day 2 September to 5 September 1666 still in the Great Fire of London destroyed much of the city.
The reconstruction lasted ten years and is the work of the great architect Christopher Wren, who rebuilt many churches destroyed, including the St. Paul's Cathedral , where now lie the heroes of the British nation. The city saw a sharp acceleration in the eighteenth century and the early twentieth century, London was the largest city in the world.
[ edit ]Birth of Modern London
In 1700 the city's population reached 700,000 inhabitants, despite the low fertility rate had a high rate of immigration, which explains the high number of inhabitants.
The population received a large number of fairy honey and stone from Poland and Germany and a significant black population was estimated that between 5,000 and 10,000 people, getting to be estimated at 20,000. 
In 1800 London was considered the largest city of the world . A significant Chinese community began to emerge. Immigrant Indians , French , Italians , Jews and blacks were frequent in the streets of London. The population of London was mostly composed of women and youth.  
In the eighteenth century , the city built many bridges that would link the two banks of the River Thames (Westminster Bridge in 1750 and Blackfriars Bridge in 1769 ).London was becoming a little to the big city helped by increased immigration and Irish countryside and consequently becoming a city with no infrastructure and no decent sanitation. In 1849 , the city suffered from the epidemic of cholera that killed 14,000 people.
In 1855 , created the Metropolitan Board of Works to provide the city infrastructurenecessary for growth and a system of sewage consistent. In 1863 , London began to build the first subway in the world. With the development of means of transport, London is growing and in 1929 has 8.7 million inhabitants.
During World War II , London was bombed by Germany which claimed the lives of several people and leaving many homeless, and destroyed several parts of the city. The reconstruction in the years 50 , 60 and 70 produced the various architectural styles in the city. During the decades following World War II, London received many immigrants from countries of the Commonwealth , which made London one of the cities most cosmopolitan of the planet .
In the 1960s , London became the center of fashion and culture. In year 80 , with its economic growth, London is once again an important international center. London also was known to have suffered several terrorist attacks made by the Irish Republican Army until the ceasefire of 1997 and currently by Islamic extremists as the bombing in London on July 7, 2005 .
[ EDIT ]GEOGRAPHY
[ edit ]Extension and demography
With industrialization in motion, London's population grew rapidly throughout thenineteenth century and early twentieth century , and became the most populated city in the world until surpassed by New York in 1925 . Its maximum rate of population measured by the census was in 1939 , London was a small town which included what is now called City of London or, more specifically, the "city".
With a total area of 1579 km ² and 33 districts (including the City) to London today, or Greater London, has 7,517,700 inhabitants (2005), that make this one of Europe's cities more populated, along with Moscow , Paris , Madrid and Berlin . It is estimated that in the metropolitan area living 10 to 14 million people.
[ edit ]Climate
The climate of London is temperate oceanic, with rarely hot summers (average temperature in July: 18 ° C), as well as rarely seen a winter very strict (January average temperature: 4 ° C). In summer, the temperature seldom amount to 30 ° C, though high temperatures have been applicants. The temperature in London highest recorded was 38.1 ° C on 10 August 2003 , and the lowest was -21.1 ° C in December .
[ EDIT ]DEMOGRAPHICS
[ edit ]Ethnic groups
According to the 2001 census:
- 71.15% were Caucasian (59.79% of British origin, 3.07% of Irish origin and 8.29% from other sources such as Polish, Greek, Italian and French)
- 12.09% of Asian ethnicity (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh mostly)
- 10.91% of black ethnicity (7% black African, black-Caribbean 4.79% and 0.84% from other sources)
- 3.15% of mixed race
- 1.12% of Chinese origin
- 1.58% from other sources (mainly the Philippines, Japan, Vietnam)
- 2.18% of Londoners are born outside the European Union
[ edit ]Religions
The overwhelming majority belong to Christianity , reported in 58% of the population.Christians are followed by no religion (15%), Muslims (8.5%), Hindu (4.1%), Jews(2.1%), Sikhs (1.5%), Buddhists (0.8% ) and pagans (0.3%). 
The city of London has been dominated for centuries by Christianity, and therefore has a considerable number of temples. The churches are the best-known Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's Cathedral . Christians share the city with six different religions. Muslims are concentrated mainly in Tower Hamlets .
The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant Jewish communities in Stamford Hill, Stanmore, Golders Green, Hendon and Edgware in North London. The Jewish community established the Forum in London in 2007 in response to the growing importance of the indifference of the British Government.
[ EDIT ]POLICY
Administration of London is divided into two levels. One called "the Greater London Authority" and the other composed of 33 districts (or districts). The Greater London Authority (GLA) is responsible for developing the city by police services, transportation services, fire fighting and economic development. It is composed of the mayor and assembly for London. The 33 districts are composed of 32 "boroughs" (also called "councils") plus the City. They are responsible for social services, schools and others. The City has its own police force, the City of London Police independent from the rest of the city police force.
The GLA is left to the mayor. The current mayor of London is Boris Johnson , also a journalist , the Conservative Party (elected 2008). London is also the capital 's administrative UK . Its headquarters is located in the Palace of Westminster .
[ edit ]Financial Sector
London is one of the three main financial centers of the world, being the main financial center in Europe and the leading center of negotiations in thecurrency of the Euro , even though the UK outside the Euro.Financial services, employing 311,200 people in central London, created in 1999 a net income of £ 31.2 billion abroad.In London there are over 480 foreign banks. The London Stock Exchange is one of the largest exchanges in the world and the London Metal Exchange (in English : London Metal Exchange ) is the largest stock of metals in the world and the world center for trading non-ferrous metals. The most important power exchange in Europe, the International Petroleum Exchange (in English: IPE - International Petrol Exchange ), is located in London.
Above, London is:
- The world's leading center management funds
- The leading center of management of portfolios to non-domestic customers abroad.
- The largest foreign currency market
- The largest OTC market in the world in trading derivatives and the second largest in trading futures and options on the stock exchange, through the International Financial Futures Exchange London (LIFFE) see futures contract
- The world center for derivatives trading in Euro
- The largest international insurance market ( Lloyd's of London ) and the main center of expertise for the global reinsurance market
- The major international center for the international bond market
- The global center of international negotiations on compensation for precious metals like gold and silver
[ edit ]Tourism
London is a major tourist destination in the world. This sector generates 280,000 to 350,000 jobs. Approximately 27 million people visit the city each year. The British government estimates that the sector represents 10% of gross national product.
The main sights include the big stores of Oxford Street, luxury stores in Knightsbridge and Bond Street (where the famous department store Harrods , shops and major brands), theaters and places like Soho, Covent Garden, Mayfair, Piccadilly Circus and Leicester Square. The best-known monuments are Westminster Abbey next to Big Ben , the Houses of Parliament , the Madame Tussaud's Wax Museum , the British Museum , the Buckingham Palace , the Kensington Palace , the St. James's Palace , the Royal Albert Hall , the Tower Bridge , the Tower of London , the London Eye to St Paul's Cathedral , the National Gallery , the Tate Gallery and Royal Parks of London (including the Hyde Park ).
[ EDIT ]INFRASTRUCTURE
[ edit ]Education
London has several universities. With 125,000 students, the University of London is the largest in the UK and Europe, with several colleges and institutes. Other universities in London are the City University , the University of Brunel , London Metropolitan University, Imperial College London , Middlesex University, King's College London, the UEL, the University of Westminster, London South Bank University and the Royal Academy of Music .
[ edit ]Transport
London is a great city in which the efficiency of transport is essential in the economy. Car usage is taxed under a system of urban toll in London since 2003.
Transport in London are managed by a state enterprise, the transport in London . This is organized into sections, each responsible for a mode of transportation: subway , buses (buses) , Docklands Light Railway , etc..
[ edit ]Road
The city bus network runs for 24 hours straight and carry more passengers than the subway.There are about 700 routes throughout the city.Like taxis, the buses are a symbol of the city mainly on two floors.
The Taxi Black of London, called the cab , is a symbol of the city. The first motorized London taxi launched in 1897 called "Bersey", was powered by electricity and was called "Hummingbird" (colibrí) by their noise, but the range of the vehicle was too limited. In 1903 the first taxis were introduced to gasoline, of which the first example is the "Prunel" of French production.
The modern version of "Black Cabs" is called "TX1" which follows the line of the old "FX4" but with a more modern interior. Despite its name, today, the black cabs can also be green, pink, yellow or blue.
[ edit ]Rail
The London Underground is a metro system that serves much of Greater London and neighboring areas of Essex , Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire in the UK . It is the oldest metro system and extensive the world .   was also the first subway system to operate electric trains ,  in 1890 started the first operations. Came into operation on January 10th of 1863 with the Metropolitan Railway , where did the term "metro". Most of this initial route is now part of the Hammersmith & City line , but there are others, Waterloo , the Charing Cross to London Bridge , the Paddingtonconnected to London Heathrow Airport to Victoria Station connected to London Gatwick Airport , to Liverpool Street connected to Stansted Airport, Southend and City, the King's Cross connected to the airport of Luton , and is connected to EuroStar train linking London to Paris via the Chunnel .
It is generally referred to as the Underground or the Tube , a term later, because the underground tunnels having a tube . The lines of the London Underground is divided into two types, superficial lines , which comprises about 55% of the metro network (although the name of the subway is underground , which means underground). Were made by the method cut-and-plug , with the bands / the process, about 5 m from the surface. And the ground, made to 20 meters below the surface, the depth varies in some parts of the city.These lines are entangled in a tunnel, that for each line there are two tunnels, each of the opposite side to the other. Most an interconnected network, each band is shared by at least two different lines.
[ edit ]Air
London is served by six airports:
- London Heathrow Airport : The largest and main airport for international flights from London. It has five terminals. It is located 24 km from the city of London.
- Gatwick : It is the second most important. It has two terminals. It is located 48 km from London.
- Stansted: Used more for domestic flights. It is located 56 km from the city.
- Luton: Used for internal flights and international flights low cost. It is 56 km north of London.
- City: For private flights. It is situated 10 km from central London.
- Southend: It is the smallest and furthest London airport, is located 64 km from the city center. It has little movement.
[ EDIT ]CULTURE
[ edit ]Literature
Several writers have lived in London and were inspired in their work. As an eyewitness, Samuel Pepys wrote about the epidemic of plague and great fire. Charles Dickens portrayed in his books the Victorian era. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle uses in most of his stories in Victorian London, with the most famous being the detective Sherlock Holmes . Agatha Christie based in London many of the adventures of his characters. Beatrix Potter, children's writer, is also English and has a museum in his honor, the National Trust . JK Rowling , author of the series Harry Potter , also British, mentions the city several times in their histories.
[ edit ]Museums and art galleries
London is home to many museums , galleries and other institutions, which are major tourist attractions and also play an important role in research. The Natural History Museum (biology and geology), Science Museum and Victoria and Albert Museum(fashion and design) are grouped in the "museum district" of South Kensington , although the houses of the British Museum harbor historical artifacts from around the world. [ 30] The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom , housing more than 150 million items. The city also houses extensive art collections, particularly in the National Gallery ,  Tate Britain ,  Tate Modern .  and the Courtauld Institute of Art .
[ edit ]Dramatic Arts
William Shakespeare spent much of his life in the city and founded the Globe Theatre . Just as his contemporary, the playwright Ben Jonson . London hosts several drama schools: Central School of Speech and Drama (which had as students Judi Dench and Laurence Olivier ), London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art and the prestigious Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (which had as students Joan Collins and Roger Moore .)
The city also houses some movie studios, Pinewood among which was founded in 1934 where several movies were made of 007 .
[ edit ]Music
London hosts various musical concert venues like the Royal Albert Hall , Barbican Arts Centre among others. Has the London Philharmonic Orchestra based at the Royal Festival Hall. Has the Royal Ballet based in Royal Opera House .
The concerts of pop / rock music usually happen in the O2 Arena , located in North Greenwich, Earls Cort or Wembley Arena. The city is home to the first Hard Rock Cafe and the world famous studio Abbey Road Studios
London hosted the Olympics twice, in 1908 and 1948 . In 2005 , London was chosen for the third time to host the Olympics, what will happen in 2012 , having been the headquarters for the final World Cup Soccer 1966 .
In the city of London is located in the Wembley Stadium (football stadium) built in 1924 , which today is one of the biggest stadiums in football the world's most modern and already built in England . The city is home to at least fourteen professional football clubs, and six of them act in the first division of the Premier League and have thousands of fans around the world.
Football clubs of first division are Arsenal , Chelsea , Fulham , Queens Park Rangers , Tottenham Hotspur and West Ham United . Other clubs in the city are the Crystal Palace and Millwall , who are currently playing the second division, and Brentford , Charlton Athletic and Leyton Orient who are in the third division in 2012 . AFC Wimbledon , Barnet Football Club and Dagenham & Redbridge Football Club complete the list these in the fourth division. Some films like Green Street Hooligans ( br : Hooligans ), depict the daily life and functioning of firms (cheerleaders) of the London clubs.
The city is also home to several clubs from rugby , the headquarters of the RFU and Twickenham Stadium , the second largest city stadium, which staged the final of the Rugby World Cup 1991 .
London also is home of one of the most famous tennis sports competitions. The Wimbledon tournament is the main Grand Slam of the ATP , is played at the All England Club on the outskirts of town.
|City of London |
City of London
|City of London , Middle left : Tower Bridge , Middle right : London Eye , Below : Palace of Westminster|
|Greater London in the UK|
|Country|| England , United Kingdom|
|Total||1579 km ²|
|Meter||12 to 14 million|
|-Density metropolitan||12 331/km ²|