domingo, 12 de agosto de 2012


London  (in  English :  London ) is the  capital  and the  largest and most important cityof  England  and the  United Kingdom . For two millennia, was a great town and its history  goes back to its founding by the  Romans , when he was named Londinium . [1] Central London, the ancient  City of London , also known as  The Square Mile  ("square mile") or  the City , retains its mediaeval boundaries. At least since the  nineteenth century , the name "London" refers to the  city  developed around this core. [2]  Today, the bulk of this  conurbation  forms the  region  of  Greater London , [3]  whose administrative area [4]  has its own  mayor  and elected  assembly . [5]
London is a  city Global Alpha + +  (alongside  New York  and  Tokyo ), and one of the largest, most important and influential  financial centers  in the world. [6] [7] [8] [9]  Central London is home to thirst for more than half of the 100 best  companies  in  the UK  (the index  FTSE 100 ) and over 100 of the 500 largest in  Europe . London has a strong influence on  politics , finance ,  education ,  entertainment ,  media ,  fashion ,  arts  and culture  in general, which contributes to their overall position. It is a major tourist destination for domestic and foreign visitors. London hosted the  Summer Olympics of 1908  and  1948  and will host the  Summer Olympics of 2012 . [10]  London has four World Heritage Sites : the  Tower of London , the site of the historic settlement of Greenwich , the  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew  and the site comprising the  Palace of Westminster ,  Westminster Abbey  and Saint Margaret's Church . [11]
London has a diverse range of  peoples ,  cultures  and  religions  and over 300 languages ​​are spoken in its territory. [12]  In July  2007 , the official population was 7,556,900 inhabitants within the limits of London, [13] making it the most populous municipality in the European Union . [14]  His  urban area  (the second largest of the  EU ) has a population of 8,278,251 inhabitants, [15]  while the  metropolitan region  (the largest EU) has a total population (rural and urban) estimated at 12 million [16]  and 14 million people.[17]  The  London Underground , administered by  Transport for London , is the most extensive  underground railway network  in the world, [18]  the  London Heathrow Airport  is the busiest airport in the world in number of international passengers [19]  and the  air space  of the city is the busiest of any city of the world. [20]


Roman London

The city  Londinium  was founded by the Romans on the north bank of the River Thames, in 43 AD The ancient town has developed close to London Bridge built by the Romans which allowed cross the Thames.
This phase lasted about 25 years until the looting by  icenos , Celtic tribe, led by Queen Boudicca . London was rebuilt, allowing a rapid  development  in the following years. It is believed that has become the capital of the Roman province British in  the second century, replacing the old capital,  Colchester . In the second century London was surrounded by a wall where now stands the  City . In the  third century  the  population  of London was about 45,000 to 60,000  inhabitants . With the beginning of the decline of  the Roman Empire , the troops were called back to the mainland and the city's population declined.

edit ]Anglo-Saxon

Westminster Abbey , which began to be built by order of king  Anglo-SaxonEdward the Confessor .
After the fall of  the Roman Empire , the Roman city was virtually abandoned and a city  Anglo-Saxon  by the name of Lundenwic was established about 1 km from the oldLondinium  Roman, in the area now called Covent Garden . Lundenwic thrived until 851 , when the invasions of the  Vikings  destroyed the city.
In  880 , Alfred expelled the Vikings, the town of Lundenwic transfers into the ancient Roman walls, which is now called Ealdwic ("old city" or "old town", where now stands Aldwych), appointing one of his sons governor of the city and probably rebuild the ancient Roman bridge over the  Thames . Thereafter, London became an important commercial center and begins to develop his unique self-government. After the death of the son of Alfred, London is reporting directly to the kings ugly. After 930 , the kings began to gather there sweating your advice and, in  1000 , the  King Etelredo already use it as their primary capital. The former capital was  Winchester , 100 km southwest of London. So London definitely stands as the capital of the kingdom, including periods in the domain of the Vikings ( 1016  to  1043 ), the return of  England  to the Saxon area (1043 to  1066 ) and  Norman dynasty  (1066 onwards). In 1016, the Danish king, Canute the Great , conquered England. The  Saxon dynasty  was restored in 1043 by Edward the Confessor , who ordered the construction of  Westminster Abbey  (not to be confused with  Westminster Cathedral ).

edit ]Medieval Period

Map of London in  1300 .
After the  Battle of Hastings in  1066 , the Normans conquered England, putting an end to the Anglo-Saxon dynasty.  William I  is crowned English king in the newly finished Westminster Abbey . In this abbey were to be crowned kings of all England. The residence of the kings of England was, until the end of the Norman period, the castle fortress of the Tower of London , which later became a prison guard and now the crown jewels.

edit ]Age of Tudor (1485-1603)

This period saw three major events: the  War of the Roses , religious reform and the English  Elizabethan period . Until the reform, much of London was occupied by monasteries (monasteries) and other religious establishments. With the retirement of  Henry VIII , monasteries passed into other hands and other functions.
Under the reign of  Elizabeth I , London's population increased from 100,000 to 200,000 inhabitants. Theatres settled in the city and  Shakespeare  founded the Globe Theatre.With the decline of the port of  Antwerp , London now has a major financial role.

edit ]Season of Stuart (1603-1714)

The  Great Fire of London  in  1666 .
After the defeat of the  invincible armada  in Spanish  in 1588 , a certain political stability in England allowed London to grow. In  1603 , King  James I  attempted to unify England and Scotland . But his anti-Catholic laws made ​​him very unpopular and on  November 6  of  1605 he suffered an assassination attempt on the famous gunpowder plot . James I did the first project of urbanization of the city and under the reign of  Charles I  came to  Hyde Park , the park first opened to the public of London.
Between  1665  and  1666 , London suffered the great  epidemic  of bubonic plague that killed about 70,000 people (20% of the population). Day  2 September  to  5 September  1666 still in the  Great Fire of London destroyed much of the city.
The reconstruction lasted ten years and is the work of the great architect Christopher Wren, who rebuilt many churches destroyed, including the  St. Paul's Cathedral , where now lie the heroes of the British nation. The city saw a sharp acceleration in the eighteenth century and the early twentieth century, London was the largest city in the world.

edit ]Birth of Modern London

The  Tower Bridge  on the  River Thames .
In  1700  the city's population reached 700,000 inhabitants, despite the low  fertility rate had a high rate of  immigration, which explains the high number of inhabitants.
The population received a large number of  fairy  honey and stone from Poland  and Germany  and a significant black population was estimated that between 5,000 and 10,000 people, getting to be estimated at 20,000. [21]
In  1800  London was considered the largest  city  of the  world . A significant Chinese community began to emerge. Immigrant  Indians , French ,  Italians , Jews and  blacks were frequent in the streets of London. The population of London was mostly composed of women and youth. [22] [23]
In the  eighteenth century , the city built many  bridges  that would link the two banks of the  River Thames  (Westminster Bridge in  1750  and Blackfriars Bridge in  1769 ).London was becoming a little to the big city helped by increased immigration and Irish countryside and consequently becoming a city with no infrastructure and no decent sanitation. In  1849 , the city suffered from the epidemic of  cholera  that killed 14,000 people.

London street during the  Blitz " , inWorld War II .
In  1855 , created the Metropolitan Board of Works to provide the city  infrastructurenecessary for growth and a system of  sewage consistent. In  1863 , London began to build the first  subway  in the world. With the development of means of transport, London is growing and in  1929  has 8.7 million inhabitants.
During  World War II , London was bombed by Germany  which claimed the lives of several people and leaving many homeless, and destroyed several parts of the city. The reconstruction in the years  50 ,  60  and  70 produced the various architectural styles in the city. During the decades following World War II, London received many immigrants from countries of the  Commonwealth , which made ​​London one of the cities most cosmopolitan  of the  planet .
In  the 1960s , London became the center of fashion and culture. In year  80 , with its economic growth, London is once again an important international center. London also was known to have suffered several terrorist attacks made ​​by the  Irish Republican Army until the ceasefire of  1997  and currently by Islamic extremists as the  bombing in London on July 7, 2005 .


Satellite image  of the city seen from the satellite  SPOT .

edit ]Extension and demography

With industrialization in motion, London's population grew rapidly throughout thenineteenth century  and early  twentieth century , and became the most populated city in the world until surpassed by  New York  in 1925 . Its maximum rate of population measured by the census was in  1939 , London was a small town which included what is now called City of London or, more specifically, the "city".
With a total area of 1579 km ² and 33 districts (including the City) to London today, or Greater London, has 7,517,700 inhabitants (2005), that make this one of Europe's cities more populated, along with  Moscow ,  Paris ,  Madrid  and  Berlin . It is estimated that in the metropolitan area living 10 to 14 million people.

edit ]Climate

The  climate  of London is  temperate  oceanic, with rarely hot summers (average temperature in July: 18 ° C), as well as rarely seen a  winter  very strict (January average temperature: 4 ° C). In summer, the temperature seldom amount to 30 ° C, though high temperatures have been applicants. The  temperature  in London highest recorded was 38.1 ° C on 10 August  2003 , and the lowest was -21.1 ° C in December [1796].


edit ]Ethnic groups

According to the 2001 census:
  • 71.15% were Caucasian (59.79% of British origin, 3.07% of Irish origin and 8.29% from other sources such as Polish, Greek, Italian and French)
  • 12.09% of Asian ethnicity (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh mostly)
  • 10.91% of black ethnicity (7% black African, black-Caribbean 4.79% and 0.84% ​​from other sources)
  • 3.15% of mixed race
  • 1.12% of Chinese origin
  • 1.58% from other sources (mainly the Philippines, Japan, Vietnam)
  • 2.18% of Londoners are born outside the  European Union

edit ]Religions

Aerial view of  St Paul's Cathedral .
The overwhelming majority belong to Christianity , reported in 58% of the population.Christians are followed by  no religion  (15%), Muslims  (8.5%),  Hindu  (4.1%),  Jews(2.1%),  Sikhs  (1.5%),  Buddhists  (0.8% ) and  pagans  (0.3%). [24]
The city of London has been dominated for centuries by Christianity, and therefore has a considerable number of temples. The churches are the best-known  Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's Cathedral . Christians share the city with six different religions. Muslims are concentrated mainly in  Tower Hamlets .
The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant Jewish communities in Stamford Hill, Stanmore, Golders Green, Hendon and Edgware in North London. The Jewish community established the Forum in London in 2007 in response to the growing importance of the indifference of the British Government.


The  Mayor of London .
Administration of London is divided into two levels. One called "the Greater London Authority" and the other composed of 33 districts (or districts). The Greater London Authority (GLA) is responsible for developing the city by police services, transportation services, fire fighting and economic development. It is composed of the mayor and assembly for London. The 33 districts are composed of 32 "boroughs" (also called "councils") plus the City. They are responsible for social services, schools and others. The City has its own police force, the City of London Police independent from the rest of the city police force.
The GLA is left to the mayor. The current mayor of London  is  Boris Johnson , also a journalist , the  Conservative Party  (elected 2008). London is also the  capital 's administrative  UK . Its headquarters is located in the Palace of Westminster .


edit ]Financial Sector

The  City of London  is the largest  financial center  of the planet. [8]  The region is home to the  London Stock Exchange and  Lloyd's of London .
London is one of the three main financial centers  of the world, being the main financial center in  Europe  and the leading center of negotiations in thecurrency  of the  Euro , even though the UK outside the Euro.Financial services, employing 311,200 people in central London, created in  1999  a net income of  £  31.2 billion abroad.In London there are over 480 foreign banks. The  London Stock Exchange  is one of the largest  exchanges  in the world and the  London Metal Exchange  (in English :  London Metal Exchange ) is the largest stock of  metals  in the world and the world center for trading non-ferrous metals. The most important power exchange in Europe, the International Petroleum Exchange  (in English:  IPE - International Petrol Exchange ), is located in London.

The three  skyscrapers  taller of the city, which together form the  financial center  of Canary Wharf . The site is home to  companies such as HSBC .
Above, London is:
  • The world's leading center management  funds
  • The leading center of management of  portfolios  to non-domestic customers abroad.
  • The largest foreign currency market
  • The largest OTC market in the world in trading  derivatives  and the second largest in trading futures and  options  on the stock exchange, through the International Financial Futures Exchange London (LIFFE) see  futures contract
  • The world center for derivatives trading in Euro
  • The largest international insurance market ( Lloyd's of London ) and the main center of  expertise  for the global reinsurance market
  • The major international center for the international bond market
  • The global center of international negotiations on compensation for precious metals like  gold  and  silver

edit ]Tourism

London is a major tourist destination in the world. This sector generates 280,000 to 350,000 jobs. Approximately 27 million people visit the city each year. The British government estimates that the sector represents 10% of gross national product.
The main sights include the big stores of Oxford Street, luxury stores in Knightsbridge and Bond Street (where the famous department store  Harrods , shops and major brands), theaters and places like Soho, Covent Garden, Mayfair, Piccadilly Circus and Leicester Square. The best-known monuments are  Westminster Abbey  next to  Big Ben , the Houses of Parliament , the  Madame Tussaud's Wax Museum , the  British Museum , the  Buckingham Palace , the  Kensington Palace , the  St. James's Palace , the  Royal Albert Hall , the  Tower Bridge , the  Tower of London , the  London Eye  to  St Paul's Cathedral , the  National Gallery , the  Tate Gallery  and  Royal Parks of London (including the  Hyde Park ).

The River  Thames  at  sunset, the sun , the picture you can see the  Tower Bridge  in the background and the building  30 St Mary Axe .


edit ]Education

London has several universities. With 125,000 students, the  University of London  is the largest in  the UK  and Europe, with several colleges and institutes. Other universities in London are the  City University , the  University of Brunel , London Metropolitan University, Imperial College London , Middlesex University, King's College London, the UEL, the University of Westminster, London South Bank University and the  Royal Academy of Music .

edit ]Transport

London is a great city in which the efficiency of transport is essential in the economy. Car usage is taxed under a system of  urban toll in London  since 2003.
Transport in London are managed by a state enterprise, the  transport in London . This is organized into sections, each responsible for a mode of transportation:  subway ,  buses (buses) , Docklands Light Railway , etc..

edit ]Road

The iconic  panoramic bus called red Routemaster .
The city bus network runs for 24 hours straight and carry more passengers than the subway.There are about 700 routes throughout the city.Like taxis, the buses are a symbol of the city mainly on two floors.
The  Taxi  Black of London, called the  cab , is a symbol of the city. The first motorized London taxi launched in  1897  called "Bersey", was powered by electricity and was called "Hummingbird" (colibrí) by their noise, but the range of the vehicle was too limited. In 1903  the first taxis were introduced to gasoline, of which the first example is the "Prunel" of French production.
The modern version of "Black Cabs" is called "TX1" which follows the line of the old "FX4" but with a more modern interior. Despite its name, today, the black cabs can also be green, pink, yellow or blue.

edit ]Rail

London Underground , the oldest subway system in the world.
The  London Underground is a  metro system  that serves much of  Greater London and neighboring areas of  Essex ,  Hertfordshire  and Buckinghamshire  in  the UK . It is the oldest metro system and extensive the  world . [18] [28] was also the first subway system to operate electric trains , [29]  in  1890  started the first operations. Came into operation on  January 10th of  1863  with the  Metropolitan Railway , where did the term "metro". Most of this initial route is now part of the  Hammersmith & City line , but there are others,  Waterloo , the  Charing Cross to  London Bridge , the  Paddingtonconnected to  London Heathrow Airport to  Victoria Station  connected to  London Gatwick Airport , to  Liverpool Street  connected to Stansted Airport, Southend and City, the King's Cross  connected to the airport of  Luton , and is connected to  EuroStar train linking London to Paris via the  Chunnel .
It is generally referred to as the  Underground  or  the Tube , a term later, because the underground tunnels having  a tube . The lines of the  London Underground  is divided into two types,  superficial lines , which comprises about 55% of the metro network (although the name of the subway is  underground , which means underground). Were made ​​by the method  cut-and-plug , with the bands / the process, about 5 m from the surface. And the ground, made ​​to 20 meters below the surface, the depth varies in some parts of the city.These lines are entangled in a tunnel, that for each line there are two tunnels, each of the opposite side to the other. Most an interconnected network, each band is shared by at least two different lines.

edit ]Air

Terminal 5 of  London Heathrow Airport.
London is served by six airports:
  • London Heathrow Airport : The largest and main airport for international flights from London. It has five terminals. It is located 24 km from the city of London.
  • Gatwick : It is the second most important. It has two terminals. It is located 48 km from London.
  • Stansted: Used more for domestic flights. It is located 56 km from the city.
  • Luton: Used for internal flights and international flights low cost. It is 56 km north of London.
  • City: For private flights. It is situated 10 km from central London.
  • Southend: It is the smallest and furthest London airport, is located 64 km from the city center. It has little movement.


edit ]Literature

Several writers have lived in London and were inspired in their work. As an eyewitness, Samuel Pepys  wrote about the epidemic of plague and great fire.  Charles Dickens portrayed in his books the Victorian era.  Sir Arthur Conan Doyle  uses in most of his stories in Victorian London, with the most famous being the detective  Sherlock Holmes . Agatha Christie based in London many of the adventures of his characters.  Beatrix Potter, children's writer, is also English and has a museum in his honor, the  National Trust . JK Rowling , author of the series  Harry Potter , also British, mentions the city several times in their histories.

edit ]Museums and art galleries

London is home to many  museums , galleries  and other institutions, which are major tourist attractions and also play an important role in research. The  Natural History Museum  (biology and geology),  Science Museum  and  Victoria and Albert Museum(fashion and design) are grouped in the "museum district" of  South Kensington , although the houses of the  British Museum harbor historical artifacts from around the world. [ 30]  The  British Library is the national library of the  United Kingdom , housing more than 150 million items. The city also houses extensive art collections, particularly in the National Gallery , [31]  Tate Britain , [32]  Tate Modern . [33]  and the  Courtauld Institute of Art .

edit ]Dramatic Arts

William Shakespeare  spent much of his life in the city and founded the  Globe Theatre . Just as his contemporary, the playwright  Ben Jonson . London hosts several drama schools: Central School of Speech and Drama (which had as students Judi Dench and  Laurence Olivier ), London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art and the prestigious Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (which had as students  Joan Collins  and  Roger Moore .)
The city also houses some movie studios, Pinewood among which was founded in  1934 where several movies were made ​​of  007 .

edit ]Music

London hosts various musical concert venues like the  Royal Albert Hall , Barbican Arts Centre among others. Has the  London Philharmonic Orchestra  based at the Royal Festival Hall. Has the  Royal Ballet  based in Royal Opera House .
The concerts of pop / rock music usually happen in the  O2 Arena , located in North Greenwich, Earls Cort or Wembley Arena. The city is home to the first  Hard Rock Cafe and the world famous studio  Abbey Road Studios

Inside  Wembley Stadium .


London hosted the Olympics twice, in  1908 and  1948 . In  2005 , London was chosen for the third time to host the Olympics, what will happen in  2012 , having been the headquarters for the final  World Cup Soccer 1966 .
In the city of London is located in the  Wembley Stadium  (football stadium) built in 1924 , which today is one of the biggest stadiums in  football  the world's most modern and already built in  England . The city is home to at least fourteen professional football clubs, and six of them act in the first division of the Premier League and have thousands of fans around the world.
Football clubs of first division are  Arsenal ,  Chelsea ,  Fulham ,  Queens Park Rangers , Tottenham Hotspur  and  West Ham United . Other clubs in the city are the  Crystal Palace  and  Millwall , who are currently playing the second division, and Brentford , Charlton Athletic  and  Leyton Orient  who are in the third division in  2012 .  AFC Wimbledon ,  Barnet Football Club  and  Dagenham & Redbridge Football Club  complete the list these in the fourth division. Some films like  Green Street Hooligans  ( br : Hooligans ), depict the daily life and functioning of  firms  (cheerleaders) of the London clubs.
The city is also home to several clubs from  rugby , the headquarters of the  RFU  and Twickenham Stadium , the second largest city stadium, which staged the final of the Rugby World Cup 1991 .
London also is home of one of the most famous tennis sports competitions. The Wimbledon  tournament is the main Grand Slam  of the  ATP , is played at the  All England Club  on the outskirts of town.
City of London 
City of London
Top: Panorama of the City of London, Middle left: Tower Bridge, Middle right: London Eye, Down: Palace of Westminster
Top:  Panorama of the  City of London ,  Middle left : Tower Bridge ,  Middle right :  London Eye ,  Below :  Palace of Westminster
Official flag of City of London
Coat official City of London
FlagCoat of arms
Location Greater London UK
Location of  Greater London  in  the UK
Country England , United Kingdom
MayorBoris Johnson
  Total1579 km ²
  Meter12 to 14 million
   -Density metropolitan  12 331/km ²

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