דובאי (בערבית: دبي, Dubayy) הוא אחת משבע אמירויות והעיר של מאוכלס ביותר של איחוד האמירויות הערביות (UAE) עם כ 2,262,000 תושבים. הוא ממוקם לאורך החוף הדרומי של המפרץ הפרסי על חץ האי הערב באסיה. העירייה נקראת לעתים "דובאי סיטי" כדי להבדיל אותה מהאמירות שלו שם. דובאי ידוע ברחבי העולם להיות מאוד מודרני, "עתידני" ועם ענק גורדי שחקים ושדרות רחבות.
ישנן עדויות על קיומה של העיר לפחות 150 שנים לפני הקמתה של איחוד האמירויות הערביות. מניות דובאי חובות משפטיים, פוליטיים, צבאיים וכלכליים עם נסיכויות האחרות, שיפוט למרות שכל אמירות 'יש מעל פונקציות מסוימות כמו היישום של המשפט האזרחי ומתן ואחזקה של מתקנים מקומיים. דובאי יש את האוכלוסייה הגדולה ביותר והוא האמירות השנייה בגודלה באזור, לאחר אבו דאבי. דובאי ואבו דאבי הם שתי נסיכויות רק כדי להחזיק את הכח של וטו בנושאים בעלי חשיבות הלאומית בבית המחוקקים של המדינה. דובאי נשלט על ידי שושלת אל מקטום מאז 1833. השליט הנוכחי של דובאי, מוחמד בין ראשיד אל מכתום, גם ראש הממשלה וסגן הנשיא של איחוד האמירויות.
ההכנסות של האמירות מגיעה מתיירות, מסחר, הנדל"ן ושירותי financeiros.As הכנסות מנפט וגז טבעי תורמים פחות מ 6% (2006) מתמ"ג של דולרים 37000000000 כלכלה של דובאי (2005). הנדל"ן והבנייה, מצד השני, תרמו 22.6% מכלכלה ב2005, לפני הנוכחי ום של הבנייה בקנה מידה גדולה. דובאי משך תשומת לב באמצעות פרויקטי הנדל"ן שלה ובאירועי ספורט. תשומת לב מוגבר, בד בבד עם הופעתה כמרכז עסקים עולמי, הדגישה סוגיות של זכויות אדם הנוגעים לכוח האדם במידה רבה החיצוני.
In 1820 ב1820, דובאי היה ידוע , Dubai was known as כאל WaslAl Wasl ידי הסטוריונים by historians בריטיים. British עם זאת, כמה רשומים הנוגעים להיסטוריה התרבותית של . However, few records pertaining to the cultural history of the איחוד האמירויות UAE הערביות, או לרכיביה הן בשל המסורת בעל הפה של האזור לבלות מסורותיהם דרך or its components are due to the oral tradition of the region to spend their traditions through הפולקלור folklore ומיתוסים. and myths. The linguistic origins of the word Dubai are also in dispute, some believe that the word may come from Persian , while some believe that Arabic is the linguistic root of the word.According Fedel Handhal, researcher of the history and culture of the UAE, the word Dubai may have come from the word Daba (a derivative of Yadub ), which means crawling, the word may be a reference to the flow of the creek to Dubai the inside.
Dubai is situated on the shore of the Persian Gulf , the UAE and this practically at sea level (above 16 meters). The emirate of Dubai shares borders with Abu Dhabi in the south , Sharjah in the northeast and the Sultanate of Oman in the southeast . Hatta , an enclave of the smallest emirate, is surrounded on three sides by Oman and the Emirate of Ajman (in the west ) and Ras Al Khaimah (in the north). The Persian Gulf borders the western coast of the emirate. Dubai is positioned at 25 ° 26 'N 55 ° 30' E and covers an area of 4114 square kilometers .
Dubai is located within the Arabian Desert . However, the topography of Dubai is significantly different from the topography found in the southern portion of the UAE, since much of the landscape of Dubai is distinguished by patterns of the desert of sand andgravel , while the deserts dominate much of the region south of the country.  The sand is composed mainly of shells and coral crushed. East of the city, the salt-crusted coastal plains, known as sabkha , give rise to ums line of dunes . Farther east, the dunes are larger and red, thanks to the iron oxide .  The sand of the desert gives way to the Western Hajar Mountains, which run alongside Dubai's border with Oman at Hatta. The Western Hajar chain has an arid landscape, irregular and broken, whose mountains reach about 1,300 feet in some places.
Dubai has no river or oasis natural, however, has an estuary natural, Dubai Creek, which was dredged to make it deep enough for large ships can cross it. A vast sea of sand dunes covers much of southern Dubai and eventually leads to the desert known as Rub 'al-Khali .Seismically, Dubai is located in a very stable - the nearest seismic fault, the fault Zargos , is 120 km from the UAE and is unlikely to have any seismic impact on Dubai.  Experts also predict that the possibility of a tsunami in the region is also minimal, because the waters of the Persian Gulf are not deep enough to trigger a tsunami .
The sandy desert surrounding the city supports wild grasses and occasional date palm trees . In the desert, hyacinths grow in the plains sabkha , to the east of the city, while acacia trees and ghaf grow on the plains near the Western Al Hajar Mountains.Several indigenous trees such as palm and neem as well as imported trees like the eucalyptus trees growing in parks in Dubai. Bustard , hyena striped, caracal , the desert fox , falcon and Arabian Oryx-the- species are common in the desert Dubai.Dubai is in the path of migrating birds between Europe , Asia and Africa , and more than 320 species of migratory birds pass through the emirate in spring and autumn .The waters of Dubai are home to over 300 species of fish including grouper .
The Dubai Creek is located in the northeast to the southwest of the city. The eastern section of town where the town of Deira , is flanked by the Emirate of Sharjah in the east and the city of Al Aweer in the south. The Dubai International Airport is located south of the city, while the Palm Deira is located north of Dubai in the Persian Gulf . Much of the boom Dubai real estate is concentrated in the west of Dubai Creek , near coastal Jumeirah. Port Rashid , Jebel Ali , Burj Al Arab , the Palm Jumeirah and the frank zone, such as Business Bay are all located in this city region. Five main areas - E 11 ( Sheikh Zayed Road ), E 311 ( Emirates Road ), E 44 (Dubai-Hatta Highway ), E 77 ( Dubai-Al Habab Road ) and E 66 ( Oud Metha Road ) - run through Dubai , linking the city to other towns and emirates. In addition, several important trade routes of the city, such as D 89 (Al Maktoum Road / Airport Road), D 85 (Baniyas Road), D 75 (Sheikh Rashid Road), D 73 (Al Dhiyafa Road), D 94 (Jumeirah Road) and D 92 (Al Khaleej / Al Wasl Road) connect the various localities of the city.The east and west sections of the city are connected by bridges Al Maktoum , Al Garhoud , Business Bay Crossing Bridge , the Floating Bridge in Dubai and the tunnel Al Shindagha .
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Dubai in 2005 was U.S. $ 37 billion.  Although Dubai's economy has been built by the oil industry,  revenues from oil and natural gas currently account for less than 6% revenues of the emirate .  It is estimated that Dubai produces 240,000 barrels of oil a day and substantial quantities of gas fields. The emirate has 2% of gas reserves in the UAE. Oil reserves in Dubai declined significantly and is estimated to be exhausted in 20 years.  Sectors Real Estate and Construction (22.6%),  Trade (16%), warehousing (15%) and of financial services (11%) are the largest contributors to Dubai's economy. 
A survey of City Mayors ranked Dubai as the 44th best city's financial world,  while another report by City Mayors indicated that Dubai is the 33rd richest city in the world in terms of parity of purchasing power standards (PPS). [ 55]
Among the main destinations for re-exports from Dubai to include Iran (U.S. $ 790 million), India (U.S. $ 204 million) and Saudi Arabia (194 million U.S. dollars). The main sources of imports of the emirate are Japan ($ 1.5 billion), China ($ 1.4 billion) and U.S. (U.S. $ 1.4 billion). 
Historically, Dubai and its twin, Deira (independent of Dubai City at that time), became important ports of call for Western manufacturers. Most new banks and financial centers of the city are located in the port area. Dubai maintained its importance as a trade route in the years 1970 and 1980 . Dubai has free trade in gold and until the 1990s , was an important center for "active smuggling trade"  of ingots of gold to India , where gold import was restricted.
The Jebel Ali Port of Dubai, built in the 1970s, is the largest artificial harbor in the world and was ranked eighth worldwide in traffic volume containers .  Dubai is also developing as a center for industries services such as IT and finance , with the creation of free zones throughout the city specific. The Dubai Internet City , combined with Dubai Media Cityas part of TECOM ( Dubai Technology, Electronic Commerce and Media Free Zone Authority ) is an enclave, like TI, whose members include companies such as EMC Corporation , Oracle Corporation , Microsoftand IBM and media organizations such as MBC , CNN , BBC , Reuters , Sky News and AP .
The Stock Exchange of Dubai ( Dubai Financial Market - DFM) was established in March 2000 as a secondary market for trading of securities and bonds, both local and foreign. In the fourth quarter of 2006, its turnover stood at about 400 billion shares, worth U.S. $ 95 billion in total. The DFM had a market capitalization of about $ 87 billion. 
The government's decision to exit a trading economy, but dependent on oil to one based on service -oriented and tourism has made real estate more valuable, resulting in property appreciation over the period 2004-2006. The long-term evaluation of the property market in Dubai, however, showed depreciation, some properties have lost 64% of its value from 2001 to November 2008.  The large-scale real estate development projects have led to the construction of some of the most highskyscrapers and innovative projects in the world, such as the Burj Khalifa , the Emirates Towers , the Palm Islands and the most expensive and second tallest hotel, the Burj Al Arab . 
The Dubai property market has experienced a major recession between the 2008th / 2009, as a result of the climate of economic downturn.  The Board of Sheikh Mohammed al Abbar told the international press in December 2008, Emaar had credits of U.S. $ 70 billion of Dubai and the State had $ 10 billion more, keeping about $ 350 billion in real estate assets. By early 2009, the situation worsened with the global economic crisistaking a heavy toll on real estate, construction and employment . 
In February 2009 the external debt of Dubai was estimated at approximately $ 100 billion, leaving every 250,000 citizens in the emirate of the UAE accounts for $ 400,000 dollars in debt.
The transport is controlled by the Dubai Roads and Transport Authority. The public transport network faces enormous congestion and reliability problems that a large investment program is trying to solve, including over a thousand AED70 billion in improvements scheduled for completion until 2020 , when the city's population is projected to exceed 3.5 million. 
The Dubai International Airport ( IATA : DXB), the hub of the airline Emirates Airlines , the services of the city of Dubai and other emirates of the country. The Dubai International Airport served a total of more than 37 million passengers and handled more than 1.8 million tons of cargo in 2008 .  In 2008, the Dubai International Airport was the 20th busiest airport in the world , with more than 35 million international passengers, and the 6th busiest international airport in the world in terms of international passenger traffic. Besides being an important center of passenger traffic, the airport is one of the busiest cargo of the world, handling 1.824 million tonnes of cargo in 2008, became the airport's 11th busiest in the world, an increase of 9, 4% over 2007. The Emirates Airlines is the national airline of Dubai, and operates internationally to 101 destinations in 61 countries on six continents .
The development of the Al Maktoum International Airport , currently under construction in Jebel Ali , was announced in 2004 . The first phase is expected to be completed in 2010 , and once operational the new airport will host foreign airlines and other emirates with an exclusive terminal for them.
The Public Transport System is managed by the Dubai Roads and Transport Authority (EWA). The bus system has 140 routes and services carried about 109.5 million people in 2008. In late 2010, there will be 2,100 buses in service throughout the city.  The Roads and Transport Authority announced the construction of 500 bus stops with air conditioning (A / C) and has plans for 1,000 more across the emirate into a drive to encourage use of public buses.
The proposed 3.89 billion U.S. dollars of Dubai Metro is under construction for the emirate. The metro system partially came into operation in September 2009 and should be fully operational in 2012 . The metro will comprise four lines: the Green Line from Al Rashidiya to the main center of the city and the Red Line from Jebel Ali airport It also has a blue and a purple line. The Dubai Metro (Green and Blue Lines) will have 70 km of track and 43 stations, 37 above ground and 10 underground.  The Dubai Metro is the first urban rail network of the Arabian Peninsula .  All trains and stations are air conditioned with doors at the end of the platform to make this possible.
The monorail on Palm Jumeirah was opened in 2009 . It is the first monorail to be built in the region. Two electric cars are expected to be built in Dubai in 2011. The first is the Downtown Burj Dubai Tram System and the second is the Al Sufouh Tram. The Downtown Burj Dubai Tram System will be 4.6 km and is designed to meet the area around the Burj Dubai , the second will run 14.5 km along the Sheikh Zayed Road in Dubai Marina to the Burj Al Arab and the Mall of the Emirates .
One of the more traditional methods of transportation between Bur Dubai and Deira is through abras , small boats that passengers use to cross the Dubai Creek , between the stations open in Bastakiya and Baniyas Road .
There are two major commercial ports in Dubai, Port Rashid and Jebel Ali Port . The port of Jebel Ali is the 7th busiest port in the world. Jebel Ali is the largest port in the world made by man and the greater Middle East .
The government has invested heavily in infrastructure road in Dubai, although this investment has not kept pace with the increasing number of vehicles. This, coupled with the phenomenon of induced traffic has led to increasing problems of congestion . 
Dubai also has an extensive system of taxi , by far the means of public transport most used in the emirate. There are both public and private taxi. There are about 7,500 taxis operating in the emirate.
Dubai is famous for its works great and strong tourist appeal. Among them we can highlight the Palm Islands , the archipelago The World, the hotel Burj Al Arab and the building Burj Khalifa .
[ edit ]Palm Islands
Palm Islands are three islands in the shape of artificial palm trees . A daring project constructed by Al Nakheel Properties, is a major attractive point of the city and aims to increase tourism in Dubai. Although artificial, natural materials have been used only ( sand and stone ) for the construction of the islands, instead of concrete and steel , better suited for the type of structure. A second artificial island shaped like a palm tree is under construction, at an advanced stage. It is planned to build a third artificial island shaped like palm tree. In each arm of the palm are being built elegant hotels and large homes.Residents may have the right to moor his boat in front of some buildings [ citation needed ] .
[ edit ]The World
The World is an archipelago artificial, still under construction, so that the design of the world map . These islands are being sold with values from 6.2 to 36.7 million dollars. Most islands have already been purchased by investors around the world. For example, a couple of actors Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt have already purchased the island representing Ethiopia , and a hotel to stay with the set consisting of several islands that make up the design of Europe [ citation needed ] .
[ edit ]Burj Al Arab
The Burj Al Arab is one of the hotels more luxurious Dubai. It was built on an artificial island with 321 meters high, and the 2nd tallest structure used as a hotel , after losing the title to the Rose Tower , also built in Dubai. The building mimics the sail of a boat, and today is one of the main cards of city and country.
[ edit ]Burj Khalifa
The Burj Khalifa (in Arabic : برج خليفة ; "Tower Khalifa " ) - formerly known as Burj Dubai (in Arabic : برج دبي ; Dubai Tower ) - is the skyscraper world's tallest. It was inaugurated on January 4th of 2010 . At a height of 828 m , making it the tallest structure in the world, reaching its maximum height, the Burj Khalifa surpassed not only the tallest skyscraper in the world, Taipei 101 , but the structure is not suspended by cables land highest in the world, the CN Tower , and the world's tallest structure, the KVLY-TV Tower . 
It took over five years to build. It cost U.S. $ 1.5 billion, according to its builders,  and can be seen at about 100 km away.
The Burj Khalifa was designed by Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill , who also designed the Sears Tower in Chicago and the Freedom Tower in New York , among other famous buildings. The interior will be decorated by Giorgio Armani . An Armani Hotel (the first of its kind) occupies the first 37 floors. The 45th to the 108th floor there are nearly 700 private apartments on 64 floors (which, according to the official, were sold in eight hours).The complete suite corporations and most other floors. It also has the fastest elevator, at 18 m / s (65 km / h, 40 mph). Currently, the fastest elevator in the world is the Taipei 101, Taipei , Taiwan , the 16.83 m / s (60.6 km / h, 37.5 mph).
The Burj Khalifa will include 30,000 homes, nine hotels, residential towers and twelve nineteen acres around it. The tower will cover an area of 334,000 square meters of development. 
|Country||United Arab Emirates|
|Total||4114 km ²|
|Metropolitan||1287.4 km ²|
|City ( 2008 )||2262000|
|-Density metropolitan||408.18 / km ²|