quinta-feira, 6 de dezembro de 2012

San Francisco (California)

San Francisco  
San Francisco
Location of  United States USA
San Francisco California Montage.jpg
From top, clockwise: Houses  Painted Ladies  in the neighborhood  Alamo Square ;  Rainbow Flag  in the neighborhood  Castro ,  Golden Gate Bridge , Lombard Street , and  streetcar  in one of the city streets.
Flag of San Francisco.svg
Nickname (s): The City by the Bay, Fog City
San Francisco (Calif.) is located in: California
Location of San Francisco in California
Map of USA CA.svg
California's location in the U.S.
General Data
Founded inJune 29  of  1776  ( 236 years )
Built-inApril 15  of  1850  ( 162 years ) [1]
MayorGavin Newsom  ( D )
GentileSan Franciscan ( San Franciscan )
37 ° 46 '46 "N 122 ° 25' 9" W
CountyCounty of San Francisco (co-existing with the city of San Francisco)
Type of localityCity
Time zone-8 / -7
Geographical features
Area600.59  km ²
- Earth121.39  km ²
- Water479.20  km ²
- Metropolis9 128.2  km ²
Population (2010 [2] )805 235 hab. (6 633.30 inhabitants / km ²)
- Urbanized3273190
- Metropolis4,335,391 [3]
Altitude16  m
California county map (San Francisco County enlarged). Svg
Location of San Francisco

Portal Portal USA
San Francisco  (in  English :  San Francisco ), officially  the City and County of San Francisco is the  fourth most populous city in  the  state  of California  and  the 13th most populous of the  United States , with a population of  805,235 inhabitants, according to the  national census of 2010 [2] . It is the only consolidated city-county in California [4] , which covers a land area of 121 km ² [5] , at the northern end of the  San Francisco Peninsula , giving it a population density of 6 633.30 people / km ². It is the  most densely populated city in California and the second large city (population greater than 200,000 ) most densely populated of the United States [6] . San Francisco is thefinancial center , cultural and transportation center of  the Bay Area of San Francisco , a region with more than 7.4 million people [7] .
In  1776 , the  Spanish  established  a fort  at the  Golden Gate  and a mission named for  Francis of Assisi  on the site[8] . The  Gold Rush in California in 1848 , propelled the city into a period of rapid growth, increasing the population in one year was 1000 to 25,000 inhabitants [9] , and thus transforming it into the largest city  West Coast of the United States  at the time. After three-quarters of the city were destroyed by earthquake and fire of 1906 [10] , San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, getting the  Panama-Pacific Exposition nine years later. During  World War II , San Francisco was the port of embarkation for the  Pacific War [11] . After the war, the return of the military,  immigration en masse, liberalizing attitudes, and other factors led to the  Summer of Love and the movement for  gay rights , consolidated San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States.
Today, San Francisco is a popular international tourist destination [12] , known for its cool summer fog, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of  Victorian architecture  and  modern  and its famous landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge , the  cable cars and  Chinatown . The city is also a center of financial  and banking sector, being home to more than 30 international financial institutions [13] , helping San Francisco to become the eighteenth richest city in the world  and ninth in the Unidos.O  people  native Ohlone  lived in what is now San Francisco long before the arrival of the first  Europeans .  Fog  and  mist , climatic aspects common in the region, made ​​the  strait  that connects  San Francisco Bay  to the  Pacific Ocean , the  Golden Gate Strait , was not found by early European explorers exploring the region. In  1542 , the Portuguese Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo , exploring on behalf of the court  Spanish , sailed close to the area but did not see the entrance to the bay. In  1595 , Portuguese  Sebastián Rodríguez Cermeno also exploring on behalf of the Spanish court, explored the  Drake Bay, located sixty miles north of the Golden Gate Strait. Cermeno named the region of  Puerto de San Francisco . It was only in  1769  that a group of Spanish explorers led by  Gaspar de Portolá , exploring the  California  shore, they saw for the first time within the San Francisco Bay. Colonization Spanish
The Spaniards completely mapped the bay around 1775 . A Spanish expedition led by Captain  Juan Bautista de Anza , delimited on  March 28 of  1776  the land for the construction of a fort (now the Presidio of San Francisco ), built by a detachment led by  José Joaquín Moraga later that same year 1776.Simultaneously, the Hispanic mission of  the Franciscan Order ,  Mission San Francisco de Assis , popularly known as  Mission Dolores , was established near the fort, founding a  church  (now the  Mission Dolores , also dated 1776, located on Dolores Street in the neighborhood  Mission , south of Street Market ). This church was named Misión San Francisco de Asis . The name became popularly refer to Dolores  because of a creek that was near the village called  Arroyo de Nuestra Señora de los Dolores  (in Portuguese : Stream of Our Lady of Sorrows ). A  monk , a member of the Anza Expedition, Friar Font, wrote about the site chosen for the  Misión  describes the location and everything remains exactly as in the present and mentions the  Arroyo de los Dolores  adding that they settled on the banks of the creek, planting  corn  and beans  to try the soil [14] .
The  September 17  of the same year, the prison was opened. In this region began to develop in the small Spanish village missionary, the  Misión Dolores del Pueblo . The plan to develop the Spanish  California was simple and "three steps". Would the Franciscans (the Misión) forward to catechize  the  natives  in (1) Church (so named  Misión ); establish their village around the Misión and where would work in their plantations, (2) pueblo  - in  Portuguese :  " the village " , and finally, the Spanish build a fort with the labor of newly indoctrinated; dalí arose (3) Presidio. Soon, the Franciscans were in charge of helping with the Christianization costanoanos, discipline and hygiene and work with the  garden , the planting of their livelihood; soldiers and nobles  took advantage to delegate the responsibilities of the heavy lifting in the hands of newly educated natives with the construction of the prison. These natives were not accustomed to work and nor do the heavy work, and could not get interested in the lifestyle of the Spaniards, who were nobles; then fled frightened. For this reason, the strong, established a prison to keep inmates workers to flee. There was a lot of death and with it, little by little, the work of the Franciscan Mission became more difficult.
In all, six missions were founded by the  Misión San Francisco de Assis . The Franciscans began in Southern California and were going up north (San Francisco being the last) --- always with the same plan. Although Hispanics dropped detachments first job was all that difficult. The Spaniards were gentlemen and would not be chasing fugitives. The detachments left the Franciscans, who followed in sequence, but in California, their  misións  became towns and American cities are today. These include the first up, almost on the border with  Mexico ,  San Diego de Alcalá  (now San Diego ); enthusiastically, they went on an expedition bolder, and further north, founding the second,  San Carlos Borromeo de Carmel , which today is called only  Carmel . San Francisco de Assis was the sixth mission to settle. There are some 21 missions in California, but many were founded by other Orders, or even by a single monk, regardless.
Spanish settlers who came along with Bautista de Anza settled in the same region near the Misión San Francisco de Asis , in the village called  Pueblo of San Francis of Assisi  (later, the village of San Francisco), the founder of the Franciscan Order. Today, the neighborhood  Mission and almost all still populated by  Chicanos .


edit ]Geographical

San Francisco is located in the  northern region  of the state of California , along the  Pacific Ocean  and  San Francisco Bay .It is surrounded by water on three sides. Just south of town is connected with the  mainland , which makes the site where the city is located a  peninsula , the peninsula of San Francisco .The city of San Francisco has about 13  km  long and 12 km wide.
San Francisco is located near the  San Andreas Fault , the source of activity  earthquake  in California. The city was hit by powerful earthquakes in  1851 ,  1858 ,  1865 ,  1868 ,  1906 , 1957  and  1989 , and the  San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 and the  Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989  and the most serious known. The threat of an earthquake similar to what happened in 1906 directly affects the development of the city: any structures like  skyscrapers  must be built following certain criteria, and many economic resources are spent for older structures that follow these criteria.
The  land  where St. Francis is located is very bumpy .Currently, the city is famous for its mountains  and hills, and the streets that run on them.
The city has a total area of 600.7 km ², of which 120.9 km ² is land and 479.7 km ² (79%) is covered by water.Within the city limits of San Francisco are many islands , such as  Farallon Islands in the Pacific Ocean, the  island of Yerba Buena , within the San Francisco Bay and famous  Alcatraz Island , at the entrance of the bay, where the prison was located in the same name, currently one of the main tourist attractions  of the city.

edit ]Climate

Surrounded on three sides by  water , the  climate  of San Francisco is very much influenced by the  cool currents  of the  Pacific Ocean . The  time  the city is mild year round, characterized by a climate temperate  Mediterranean  ( Csb ), with  summers  and relatively warm  winters relatively cold.The  temperature  in winter average is 10 ° C , rarely dropping below zero, and the average summer temperature is 15 ° C. The lowest temperature ever recorded in San Francisco was -4 ° C in December  1972 , and the highest was 41 ° C, in July  1988 . The  precipitation  overall annual average city is 500.4  mm , falling in most of the year as  rain , and rarely in the form of  snow semi-molten. Very possibly, it snows in the city. It rains very little in the summer, but the winters are usually very rainy.
The combination of heat from the  ground  and the cold Californian Pacific Ocean cause constant mist and  fog  in the summers of San Francisco. This makes the summers of the city are significantly colder than in the countryside. In September, however, the occurrence of fog and mist in the city is more rare. At this time a week ago of the hottest of the year, known as the  Indian Summer  (Indian Summer).

Fog  surrounding the  Golden Gate Bridge , a common phenomenon in the city

Panorama of San Francisco from  Twin Peaks .


San Francisco is both a city and county in California, and is the only one of the 58 counties of the state that has this distinction. The city is governed by a  mayor , who runs the executive system of the city and a municipal council ( Board of Supervisors ), consisting up of 11 members, each being elected by the population of each of the 11 electoral districts of the city . The mayor and the City Council together form the legislative system of the city. Both the mayor and council members are elected by the people to serve four years in duration.
About 70% of the city budget comes from local taxes, the rest comes from grants provided by the state government of California. It is estimated the fiscal budget of the city between June  2005  and June  2006 , around 2.44 billion / billion dollars.


Financial center  of San Francisco.
San Francisco is one of the main financial centers of the United States.The city has a  stock market  of regional importance. Many commercial and financial companies have their headquarters in San Francisco.
The  tourism  plays a key role in the city.The city attracts millions of tourists every year, interested in its parks, its various tourist attractions and its climate, mild year round. The city is also a tourist destination among tourists much quoted  homosexuals , who are attracted by the air of cordiality city population of homosexuals.
The metropolitan area of San Francisco - San Jose is the capital of the national high-tech industry.South of  San Jose  is located  in Silicon Valley , so named because in the region are located numerous companies and factories producing  chips  for  computers , of which  silicon  is an essential raw material. The city of San Francisco itself also has many high-tech factories, which manufacture computer parts and  software . San Francisco is also an important financial center, and is considered the financial capital of  Northern California .
Other important industries in the city are the textile, food, metals and derivatives.

edit ]Tourism

The  island of Alcatraz  receives 1.5 million tourists per year. [21]
San Francisco is a city  cosmopolitan , known for its cable cars  and the  Golden Gate Bridge . The region of the  bay  has many  museums ,  restaurants  and shopping centers and famous historic sites. For those who prefer outdoor activities, the National Recreation Area Golden Gate and the beaches of Santa Cruz is a great destination.
San Francisco is located on a  peninsula  of 120  km ² , and is one of the best ports in the world closed, and four islands:  Alcatraz ,  Angel ,  Yerba ,  Buena  and Treasure . The history of the city is a blend of Spanish colonialism and American Romanticism. The city is built on a chain of  mountains , so many streets have a beautiful view of the bay.
One of the main attractions of San Francisco is its centenary tram network with 17 km long, flowing at 15  km / h  and whose history can be seen in the Tram Museum of San Francisco.Another interesting museum is the Museum of Art of Drawing. You can also visit the Golden Gate Bridge and Golden Gate Park, with  lakes  and  gardens  that serve as the backdrop for concerts, as well as accommodate the California Academy of Science, the Natural History Museum, Morrison Planetarium and Steinhart Aquarium. Other attractions that are worth visiting are: Pier Fishermen;  Alcatraz , a former maximum security prison that is now a national park,  Chinatown , central  China , Ocean Beach and Seal Rocks.

Chinatown  in San Francisco.
The cultural heritage of San Francisco is very rich, and the main focus, among other places, is the Center for the Arts (in Yerba Buena Gardens) with many festivals of  dance ,  theater , music ,  film  and artistic montages. The Modern Art Museum of San Francisco and the American Conservatory Theatre. For visitors who prefer peace and tranquility there are Roller Coasters, which is named in memory of Russian sailors who were buried there, and it is the place of refuge for writers like  Jack London  and  Mark Twain .
North Bay is  Vallejo , the first capital of  California , also a center of interest to history buffs, nature lovers and sportsmen. At the East Bay is  Berkeley , home of the famous cultural  UC Berkeley , and attractions such as the Museum of Art at UC Berkeley, the Pacific Film Archive and the Zellerbach Hall. It has a lot of bookstores, cafes and nightclubs, for students and tourists.
Going southward is  Oakland , where many activities are concentrated from the Bay Area and has miles of sea with a panoramic backdrop that makes a lovely city. Further south is  St. Joseph , famous for wonderful climate throughout the year and some unique attractions, including the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, the House of Mystery of  Winchester  and the innovative The Tech Museum.


edit ]Education

The system of  schools  public of San Francisco is administered by the  San Francisco Board of Education  (Board of Education of San Francisco). The Council is composed of seven members who are elected by the population of the city to serve four years in duration. This municipal organization administers the  San Francisco Unified School District  (Unified School District San Francisco), a  school district  that manages approximately 120 public schools, and who is responsible for the education of approximately 60,000 students per year. San Francisco manages a system of  libraries  public libraries composed of 25 across the city.
San Francisco is a major educational hub. The largest  university  in the city is the  University of San Francisco . Nine other higher education institutions are located in the city.

edit ]Transportation

edit ]Public transport

Tram  to  draw .
San Francisco has one of the best and most extensive systems of  public transport on the west coast of the United States. The  San Francisco Municipal Railway is the municipal agency responsible for managing the mesh  trolleys ,  trams traction  (which are one of the main tourist attractions of the city) and  buses . The system is integrated, considering only the lines of trams and buses. Trams traction is another tourist attraction of the city than an efficient means of transport, and they are not integrated with the rest of the system.
The  Bay Area Rapid Transit  ( BART ) operates a line subway  which connects San Francisco with other neighboring cities. For those who want to get around the  subway  to a bus is required to pay a "transfer" Pour 0.25 cents to power their way to a conventional bus.

edit ]Public Roads

San Francisco is one of the few major U.S. cities that opted to use a system of arterial streets as the main component of the public roads of the city, rather than an extensive system of  highways . Few expressways exist in the city today.
San Francisco connects with the city of  Oakland , north through the  San Francisco-Oakland Bridge . It was inaugurated in  1936 . Similarly, connects the city with Marin County , located northeast, just across  the Golden Gate Bridge . This was inaugurated in  1937 , a year after the inauguration of the bridge from Oakland to San Francisco.

edit ]Airports

The main  airport  serving San Francisco,  San Francisco International Airport is located 12.9 km south of San Francisco, in  San Mateo County , in an area previously occupied by a  landfill . It is one of two major centers of the California airport, the other being  Los Angeles International Airport , located in  Los Angeles .The San Francisco International Airport is a major hub of  United Airlines . During the late  1990's , the San Francisco International Airport has become the sixth busiest commercial airport in the world, but with the economic depression of the years  2000  and  2001 , fell out of the top 10 busiest in  2003 . The  BART connects the airport with the city, as well as an  expressway .
Other primary airports in the region include the  Oakland International Airport , located 32.2 km south of San Francisco, and  San Jose International Airport , located 70.8 km south of San Francisco.

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