domingo, 6 de janeiro de 2013

new york

New York, New York
—  City  —
City of New York
Clockwise from top: Midtown Manhattan, the United Nations Headquarters, the Statue of Liberty, the Brooklyn BridgeCentral ParkTimes Square, and the Unisphere inQueens


Nickname(s): "The Big Apple", "Gotham", "The Center of the Universe", "The City That Never Sleeps",[1] "The Capital of the World"[2][3][4]
Location in New York State
New York City is located in United States
New York
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 40°39′51″N 73°56′19″W
CountryUnited States
StateNew York
Historic ColonyColony of New York
CountiesBronxKingsNew York,QueensRichmond
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • BodyNew York City Council
 • MayorMichael Bloomberg (I)
 • Total468.5 sq mi (1,213 km2)
 • Land302.6 sq mi (784 km2)
 • Water165.8 sq mi (429 km2)
Elevation[7]33 ft (10 m)
Population [8]
 • Estimate (2011)8,244,910
 • Rank1st
 • Density27,012.5/sq mi (10,429.6/km2)
 • Metro18,897,109 (1st)
 • CSA22,085,649 (1st)
DemonymNew Yorker
Time zoneEastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code(s)100xx–104xx, 11004–05, 111xx–114xx, 116xx
Area code(s)212347646718917929
FIPS code36-51000
GNIS feature ID975772
New York is the most populous city in the United States[9] and the center of theNew York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.[10][11][12] The city is referred to as New York City or the City of New York[13] to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it is a part.[14] Aglobal power city,[15] New York exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. The home of the United Nations Headquarters,[16] New York is an important center for international diplomacy[17] and has been described as the cultural capital of the world.[18]
Located on one of the world's largest natural harbors,[19] New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a state county.[20] The five boroughs—The BronxBrooklynManhattanQueens, and Staten Island—were consolidated into a single city in 1898.[21][22] With a Census-estimated 2011 population of 8,244,910[23] distributed over a land area of just 302.64 square miles (783.8 km2),[24][25][26] New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States.[27] As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.[28] The New York City Metropolitan Area's population is the United States' largest, with 18.9 million people distributed over 6,720 square miles (17,400 km2),[29][30] and is also part of the most populouscombined statistical area in the United States, containing 22.1 million people as of the 2010 Census.[31]
New York traces its roots to its 1624 founding as a trading post by colonists of theDutch Republic, and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.[32] The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664[32][33] and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York.[34][35] New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790.[36] It has been the country's largest city since 1790.[37] The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries[38] and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy.[39]
Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known to its approximately 50 million annual visitors.[40][41][42] Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World",[43][44][45][46][47] is the brightly illuminated hub of theBroadway theater district,[48] one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections,[49][50] and a major center of the world's entertainment industry.[51]The city hosts many world renowned bridgesskyscrapers,[52] and parks. New York City's financial district, anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, functions as the financial capital of the world[53] and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalizationof its listed companies.[54] Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world.[55] Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere.[56][57][58][59]Providing continuous 24/7 service,[60] the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive rapid transit systems in the world. Numerous colleges and universities are located in New York,[61] including Columbia UniversityNew York University, and Rockefeller University, which are ranked among the top 50 in the world.[62]


Satellite imagery demonstrating the core of the New York City Metropolitan Area.
New York City is located in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston.[101] The location at the mouth of theHudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. Much of New York is built on the three islands of Manhattan, Staten Island, and Long Island, making land scarce and encouraging a high population density.
The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City andTroy, New York, the river is an estuary.[102] The Hudson separates the city from New Jersey. TheEast River—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx andWestchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.[103]
The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times. Reclamation is most prominent inLower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s.[104] Some of the natural variations in topography have been evened out, especially in Manhattan.[105]
The city's total area is 468.9 square miles (1,214 km2). 164.1 sq mi (425 km2) of this are water and 304.8 sq mi (789 km2) is land.[25][26] The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine.[106] The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.[107]


Times Square has the highest annual attendance rate of any tourist attraction in the US,[217] and according to Travel + Leisure magazine's October 2011 survey, the world.[49]
Tourism is one of New York City's most vital industries, with more than 40 million combined domestic and international tourists visiting each year in the past five years.[218]
Major destinations include the Empire State BuildingStatue of LibertyEllis Island; Broadway theater productions; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square ParkRockefeller Center; Times Square; the Manhattan Chinatown; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade; the St. Patrick's Day parade; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. Special experiences outside the key tourist areas of the city include theBronx ZooConey IslandFlushing Meadows-Corona Park; and the New York Botanical Garden. Plans were unveiled by Mayor Michael Bloomberg on September 27, 2012 for the New York Wheel, the world's tallest ferris wheel, to be built at the northern shore of Staten Island, overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan skyline.[219][220]
In 2010, New York City received nearly 49 million tourists,[221][222] subsequently surpassed by a record 50 million tourists in 2011.[223][224]


New York City is a center for the television, film, advertising, music, newspaper, and book publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America (followed by Los Angeles, Chicago, and Toronto).[225] Some of the city's media conglomerates include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, the News Corporation,The New York Times CompanyNBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, and Viacom. Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York.[226] Two of the "Big three" record labels' headquarters, are in New York City; Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music GroupUniversal Music Group also has offices in New York. One-third of all American independent films are produced in New York.[227]
More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city[227] and the book-publishing industry employs about 25,000 people.[228] Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States are New York papers: The Wall Street Journal andThe New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: The New York Daily News which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson[229] and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton.[230] The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages.[231] El Diario La Prensa is New York's largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation.[232] The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The Village Voice is the largest alternative newspaper.
The television industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The four major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABCCBSFox, and NBC. Many cable channels are based in the city as well, includingMTVFox NewsHBO, and Comedy Central. In 2005, there were more than 100 television shows taped in New York City.[233] The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYCTV,[234] that has produced several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government.
New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971.[235] WNET is the city's major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.[236]


Top publicly traded companies
in New York City for 2010

(ranked by revenues)
with City and U.S. ranks
1J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.13
3Verizon Communications16
4American International Group17
7INTL FCStone51
8Goldman Sachs Group54
9Morgan Stanley63
10New York Life Insurance71
12News Corporation83
Financial services firms in green
Full table at Economy of New York City
Source: Fortune 500[267]
New York is a global hub of international business and commerce and is one of three "command centers" for the world economy (along with London and Tokyo).[268] In 2012, New York City topped the first Global Economic Power Index, published by The Atlantic(to be differentiated from a namesake list published by the Martin Prosperity Institute), with cities ranked according to criteria reflecting their presence on similar lists as published by other entities.[269] The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media as well as traditional mediaadvertising,legal servicesaccountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States.
The New York metropolitan area had a gross metropolitan product of approximately $1.28 trillion in 2010,[270] making it the largest regional economy in the United States and, according to IT Week, the second largest city economy in the world.[271] According toCinco Dias, New York controlled 40% of the world's finances by the end of 2008, making it the largest financial center in the world.[272][273][274]
The New York Stock Exchange onWall Street, the world's largest stock exchange per total market capitalizationof its listed companies.[275]
New York City has been ranked first among 120 cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists.[276] In July 2012, theManchester United Football Club of the United Kingdom announced plans to list its initial public offering of stock shares on the New York Stock Exchange.[277]
Many major corporations are headquartered in New York City, including 45 Fortune 500companies.[278] New York is also unique among American cities for its large number of foreign corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company.[279]
Real estate is a major force in the city's economy, as the total value of all New York City property was $802.4 billion in 2006.[280] TheTime Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at $1.1 billion in 2006.[280] New York City is home to some of the nation's—and the world's—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for $510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue.[281]
The city's television and film industry is the second largest in the country after Hollywood.[282] Creative industries such as new media, advertising, fashion, design and architecture account for a growing share of employment, with New York City possessing a strong competitive advantage in these industries.[283]
High-tech industries like biotechnologysoftware developmentgame design, and internet services are also growing, bolstered by the city's position at the terminus of several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines.[284] Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a large but declining share of employment. Garments, chemicals, metal products, processed foods, and furniture are some of the principal products.[285] The food-processing industry is the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city.[286] Food making is a $5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents. Chocolate is New York City's leading specialty-food export, with $234 million worth of exports each year.[286]

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